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Sindarin -> Classes ->Class 12 - Verb I-stem Part 1
Class 12 - Verb I-stem Part 1

The verb in I-Stem also call basic verb are a little more complicated then the Verb in A-stem that we have seen.

The infinitive

Is formed with the ending -i (not -o as in the A-stems):

      fir- = firi "to fade, to die"
      ped- = pedi "to speak"
      redh- = redhi "to sow"

This ending in i will change the vowels a and o to e:

      blab- = blebi "to flap"
      dar = deri "to stop, to halt"
      tol- = teli "to come"

Some verbs inevitably coincide in the infinitive; for example, can- "call, shout" and cen- "see" would both have the infinitive ceni. The context must decide which verb is intended.

The present tense

It is formed in 2 different ways. The third person singular, (that requires no further ending), is the same as the verbal stem, but in the case of monosyllabic verbal stems, the vowel becomes long (will have an accent):

      dar- = dr "(he, she, it) stops"
      ped- = pd "speaks"

(These may also cover the English tenses: "is stopping", "is fading" etc., but we cannot be sure. There is attested examples like blab as the present tense of blebi- "to flap" and tl is translated "he comes", identified as the 3rd person singular of teli "to come".

These verbs (except the 3rd person singular) required an ending, These endings are added to a form of the verb that is identical to the infinitive, hence with the ending -i and umlaut (will change) where the verbal stem has the vowel a or o (while i and e are not affected in any way) (see plural prestanneth)

      1st sing : -n 1st plur: -m
      2nd sing : -ch 2nd plur: -ch
      3rd sing : 3rd plur: -r

      dar- "stop, halt" = derin "I stop, halt"
      derir "(they) stop, halt",
      derich "you stop",
      derim "we stop"

 

Excercises

The infinitive

gir- (shudder) --- > _________________
pel- (wither) --- > _________________
dag- (slay) --- > _________________
nor- (run) ---> _________________
tog- (lead) ---> _________________

The present tense

fir- (fade, die) ---> (1st person) __________________
tol- (come) --- > (3rd person) __________________

The past tense

cab- (jump) ---> (3rd person) ______________________
gir- (shudder)---- > (1st person plurial) ______________________
Lav (lick) ----> (3rd person ) ______________________
dar- (stop, halt) --- > (2nd person) ______________________

The future tense

dar- (halt)--- > (1st person) ______________________
gir- (shudder)---- > (3rd person plurial) ______________________

The imperative

ped- (speak) --- > __________________
tol- (come) --- > __________________

 

 

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