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Sindarin -> Classes -> Class 10 - Verb A-stem Part 1
Class 10 - Verb A-stem Part 1

This is not 100% understood how the verb will be conjugate, but this is the best that is known of it, Only Tolkien will have been able to tell us! So I will do my best to explain it!

There are 2 main categories of verb, the derived verbs and the basic verbs also know as A-stem and I-stem. You will see why A-stem and I-stem, and this easier to remember how to conjugate them.

Plural and Pronominal: In the conjugated verb, we will often see these as suffixed. These suffix is really important to know to which person it is said. In English if we say ‘’ I look, you look, the ‘I’ ‘You’… say at which person it is, in Sidarin we will see. ‘’Tiron, Tirach… so ‘n’ ‘ch’ will indicated the person.

So there is a helpful list:

      I = -n       You = -ch
      He = None (will stay normal)
      We = -m
      You = -ch
      They = -r

 

The Verb in A-Stem (part 1)

The Infinitive

The infinitive is formed of the ending -o displacing the ending -a

      bronia- "endure" > bronio "to endure"
      esta- "call, name" > esto "to call, to name"
      lacha- "flame" > lacho "to flame"
      harna- "wound" > harno "to wound"

The Present tense:

The present tense is identical to the A-stem itself exception of the first person where the -a will turn -o because of the -n (umlaut)

      bronia- "endure" > bronia "endures, is enduring"
      ertha- "unite" > ertha "unites, is uniting"
      lacha- "flame" > lacha "flames, is flaming"
      harna- "wound" > harna "wounds, is wounding

The Past tense:

The past tense is form by the suffix -nt But if you had the person like –n then before adding it, the -nt will turn to -nne-

      bronia- "endure" > broniant "endured"
      esta- "call, name" > estant "called, named"
      lacha- "flame" > lachant "flamed"
      harna- "wound" > harnant "wounded

Future tense:

The future tense is formed by adding -tha exception of the first person, for the same reason then before, because of the -n the -tha will turn to -tho

      bronia- "endure" > broniatha "will endure"
      esta- "call, name" > estatha "will call, will name"
      lacha- "flame" > lachatha "will flame"
      harna- "wound" > harnatha "will wound"

The Imperative:

The Imperative is form by the ending –o . The imperative in -o covers all persons, the form is the same no matter whether the command is directed to one person or to several people.

      Dara- Daro! (halt)

 

Exercises

The Infinitive

dagra- (make war) ________________________
ertha- (unite) ________________________
linna- (sing) ________________________

The Present tense:

dagra- (make war) (first person singular ___________________________
ertha- (unite) (3rd person plural) ___________________________
linna- (sing) (2nd person singular) ___________________________

The Past tense:

dagra- (make war)' (3rd singular) ___________________________
ertha- (unite) (1st plural) ___________________________
linna- (sing) (1st singular) ___________________________

Future tense:

dagra- (make war)(2nd plural) __________________________
ertha- (unite) (3rd plural) __________________________
linna- (sing) (3rd singular) __________________________

The Imperative:

Tira- ______________________

 

 

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